- According to Swiss study – to avoid global warming, the need to plant one lakh crore trees worldwide
- Government aims to spread forest in 33% of the land area
- Forest area is still 21.54%, 2800 crore trees have to be planted to make up the shortfall
Bhaskar News Network. World Nature Conservation Day is being celebrated today all over the world. It aims to raise awareness to conserve natural resources. Trees and forests are very important part of these natural resources. Due to the dwindling number of forests, it is now becoming more necessary to emphasize on their conservation. A tree not only gives shade and oxygen, it costs more than that. Initial attempts were made in India to find out the economic value of a tree. In 1979, a study was done by Dr. Tarak Mohan Das, a professor at Calcutta University, in which he gave the price of a tree.
Dr. Das had told that a tree gives services of 2 lakh dollars (1979 rate) in its 50 years of life. These services include oxygen emission, preventing erosion, making soil fertilizer, recycling water and purifying the air. If the price of 1979 is calculated keeping in mind the inflation rate, today the cost of services of a tree is about 5 crores. Another study was done in 2013 by Delhi Greens, a Delhi-based NGO. According to this, the amount of oxygen a healthy tree gives in a year, if you buy it, the price will be more than 30 lakh rupees. Although each tree is invaluable, but these figures only tell us how important our efforts are to plant trees.
The forests protect us like this …
Prevent floods: Trees reduce by 10%, so the risk of floods is 28% higher: According to a study by IIT Kharagpur, the states where forests are less or are getting more damage due to flooding. At the same time, the same thing came out in the study of data from 56 countries of National University of Singapore. Accordingly, in countries where the area of natural forests was reduced by 10 per cent, the probability of flooding increased from 4 to 28 per cent.
Protects against diseases: reduces asthma risk by 33% 343 trees: According to a study in the UK, planting 343 trees per square km reduces the risk of asthma in children by 33%. Similarly, forests prevent disease-causing organisms, especially mosquitoes, from coming into residential areas. For example, in the 90s, forests were cut for roads in Peru. This increased the number of malaria patients there from 600 to 1.2 lakh annually.
Medicines: There are more than 50 thousand kinds of plants in the world. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of America, there are about 50,000 species of plants in the world from which medicines can be made. India has the highest number of such varieties after China. There are 4900 plants in China and 3000 in India that can be used as medicines. Only in America, wild plants are being used in one in four medicines.
36000 lives can be saved annually: Protects from bad environment: According to a study by the Nature Conservancy, an institution working in the field of environment, if more and more trees are planted in cities, then the death due to bad environment can be reduced by 9 percent. And can save 36,000 lives every year. Another study suggests that a tree absorbs up to 20 kg of dust a year.
What does a tree do for us
- Temperature regulates, reduces CO2: Trees can reduce the temperature of an area by 1 to 5 degrees. A tree can absorb up to 22 kg of carbon-dioxide throughout the year.
- Every year gives 100 kg of oxygen: A tree gives 100 kg of oxygen in a year. A person needs 740 kg of oxygen in a year.
- Makes rain, increases groundwater: with the help of a tree it can rain 3500 liters of water annually. Each tree stops about 3700 liters of water and sends it to the ground. This increases groundwater.
- Air filters protect the lungs: A tree reduces smog (smoke and fog) by 6 percent. Fully grown trees can absorb up to 108 kg of small particles and gases from polluted air.
- Stores water, prevents flooding in cities: stores water, maintains water in the atmosphere. This reduces the possibility of drought. In cities, 530 liters of water prevents floods by preventing them from drains.
- Relaxed with peace and savings too: AC need is reduced by 30% when planting trees right around the house. This can save 20–50% of electricity. The noise inside can be reduced by up to 50%.
- Soil absorbs toxic substances: A tree absorbs about 80 kg of mercury, lithium, lead, etc. from the soil. This makes the soil more fertilizer and cultivable.
- Helps save biodiversity: One tree can survive up to 80 species of birds. The country’s 84 animals are in the red list of animals going extinct. It also has gharial, jeepore lizards, flying squirrels seen here.
Most of the trees are being cut in the world due to these reasons.
- 23% due to forest fire
- 26% for wood products
- 0.6% to urbanize
- 27% to increase cultivated land and for mining, oil and gas production
- 24% transferrable agriculture (land vacated for cultivation, which was later abandoned)
- Trees spread over 17200 million square feet have been cut in India, in the last 18 years. That means around 125 crore trees were cut. (Calculations based on 75000 trees per sq km forest)
- There is a need to plant 14000 crore trees, to spread the forest in 33 percent of the country. The government has set a target of 33 percent. Currently, 21.54% of the area in the country is forested.
Trees and rain cycle: more trees means more rain
- Evaporation: The process of vaporization from water. The leaves of trees along with water sources also evaporate. This increases the humidity in the air.
- Monsoon: Steam cooling and turning into water. Larger and thicker trees block the moisture of the air more, causing more rain.
- Transpiration: The tree absorbs as much water as it absorbs. The leaves release excess water into the air in the form of steam.
- Leakage / leakage: Water leaks into the earth. Trees prevent strong rainwater from flowing. This allows more water to enter the earth.
Source: Global Forest Watch, Studies at various universities, media reports